Normal Function
  1. US 3 directional forces

  2. Micturition. Relaxation of the forward muscle force (m.pubococcygeus) allows the posterior vectors to open out the posterior urethral wall. The bladder contracts as a spasm to empty.

    VIDEO Micturition animation of X Ray (1678 KB)


Simulated Operations
  1. Testing for pubourethral ligament defect
    VIDEO Testing for pubourethral ligament defect (4365 KB)

  2. Simulated operations for control of stress and urge incontinence

    VIDEO Testing for pubourethral ligament integrity in USI (4365 KB)

    VIDEO Activation of micturition reflex by pressure on bladder base stretch receptors (530 KB)


Further Videos